Posts By Yvonne Hoffman

Smart Ideas To Develop Your Love For Books Into A Business

 

If you like to read books then you can do business in this hobby.

Editing service

It is now possible to get your books published without hiring a traditional publisher. This means that an author can offer to sell his books on the websites. However, it is important that the books can be read and thus here one needs editors.

You can be an editor if you have a good command on your language. You should know the grammar and the writing style of the book. You may either offer to do basic editing where you will just be correcting the punctuation and grammar. You may else offer line editing where you would have to check the structure of the paragraph and correct the word choice and the flow. Developmental editing is where you will have to evaluate the book content. You need to check if there is a flow in the story and that the characters are developed well. You also need to check the pacing of the book.

Based on the level of editing service that you provide you can set your charges. It is important that to be an editor you have a good hold of the language. You should understand the development of the story and the art of writing.

To sell your services as a book editor you will need to have your own website. Outline the services that you offer along with sample and references of your past work. You can then network with the authors and get referrals. In case you are just starting out then you may want to offer a sample of your services for free. There are also many freelance editing jobs that you can search for.

Sell and rent the used books

You can use online sites to sell or rent your books. You, however, need to make sure that you have a good collection so that it makes money for you. If you have a big book collection then you can start a rental service as well.

Do you have books on forex trading? If not, you can read about it online. Click for more info on using the automated software to trade the Forex market.

 

Start your own publishing service

Writes want their books to be published but they may not have the time to get the books ready. This is when they look for a publishing service. As a publishing service company, you can offer editing, cover design, formatting, and submission.

You may do it yourself or you can even hire contractors to do the task for you. You may either offer the publishing work as a one-time thing or start a company that works full-fledged to offer the publishing service.

 

Do You Have The Traits Of A Businessman?

 

Everyone who does business need not be a businessman. There are several traits which make an individual a businessman. These qualities are quintessential in sustainability and ensure success in order to continue the journey in the path of doing business.

  • Fore-vision – A good SWOT analysis will aid in recognizing emerging and available opportunities and to capitalize on the same for strengthening roots and expanding wings.
  • Discipline – A disciplined individual will rise against all odds, walking hand in glove with time and achieving every minor and major goal. Fresh challenges will not bother him as he will be able to focus and thwart them at the very instance.
  • Courage – Ability to walk that untrodden path or extra mile will give him more opportunity and success. There is too much to score as the last man or first man standing in the show.
  • Determination – A good homework and a strong decoction of unbeatable determination will determine whether the business is definitely yours.
  • Good communication – Running a successful business requires expressive and communication skills to persuade the client as well as the staff. Good communication requires a command on the medium of instruction as well as hard and soft skills. A channel of communicating demands and copes of improvement as the customershop over to this website section of feedback improves the confidence in your business.
  • Appreciation: Always appreciate a good job of your seniors, colleagues,and subordinates in a genuine way because it is sure to pay fruits.
  • Trust – Trusting your client, colleague or subordinate is necessary but with means to verify the accomplishment of the genuine task.
  • Ability to convince – One should have the ability to convince the client which requires a good knowledge of the product. One can convince a client only when he can convince oneself.
  • Ability to sell the product – It is only possible with adequate research, clarity in thoughts, conviction and good communication skills. Every sale will boost confidence and lead to a further sale and sets up a chain reaction of selling and buying.
  • Responsibility – Business is not accomplished by the mere sale of the product but building trust and providing all-round support for consumption of the product by the end user.
  • Resources – Development of new and upkeep of existing resources for maintaining the buy-sell cycle is a very significant trait of a businessman.
  • Willingness to put in that extra effort required for sustenance and development of the business. Willingness to do any and every possible genuine meaningful endeavor will definitely guide success.

 

 

 

Global Trading

Bitcoin uses cryptocurrency rather than fiat currency. Fiat currency means the price value of the cryptocurrency is not directly related to the economy or policies of any single country. It is defined as money declared by a government to be a legal tender. BY law, it is neither convertible to any other thing nor fixed in value. This online trading trades 24/7. The volatility nature gives opportunities for traders to reap quick benefits at any point.

Barter Dealings

An exchange is where buyers and sellers perform their business dealings. In a similar way, here a buyer deposits USD with the exchange and then he can buy cryptocurrency from the sellers. But unlike the stock market, there is no official exchange for this online trading system. Instead, there are hundreds of many exchanges around the world. As there is no official exchange, there is no official price for cryptocurrency too. Users have many choices and should consider the following factors when deciding on an exchange:

  • Regulation and Trust
  • Fees
  • Liquidity
  • Location

There are many exchanges all around and some of them that dominate the exchange markets are:

  • Bitfinex: It is the world’s number 1 exchange in terms of USD trading volume with about 25,000 BTC traded per day. Customers can trade with such online system without verification. Tether is also cryptocurrency associated with Bitfinex. It is with them that they share shareholders and management.
  • Bitstamp: It was found in 2011 and it is one of the oldest exchanges ever. It is the second largest exchange based on USD trading volume with little under 10,000 BTC per day.
  • OkCoin: An exchange which is China-based but trades in USD. It is a spot trading service between the currency pairs: BTC/USD, LTC/USD, EUR/USD and ETC/USD. The commission fee is charged for each transaction.
  • Coinbase: It is the first regulated exchange in the United States with about 8,000 BTC traded per day. It is the fourth largest exchange based on USD volume. It provides a secure platform for trading. It is free to use but works with transaction fees.
  • Kraken: It is the exchange in terms of EUR trading volume at approx of 6000 BTC traded per day. It is currently in the fifteenth position in terms of USD volume.

It is always good to get money with few clicks and without any strain. Using the source available, think wisely and invest your money properly to gain the fruits of quality service.

Programma

Programma

 

Monday, June 18, 2012

 

09:00 – 9.30: Registration and welcome coffee

INTRODUCTION

9.30-10:00 Saluti

Alberto Tesi, Università degli studi di Firenze, rettore

Mauro Guerrini, Università di Firenze, chair del seminario di studi

Rossella Caffo, Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico delle biblioteche italiane, direttore

 

SECTION 1: LINKED DATA AS A NEW PARADIGM OF DATA INTERCONNECTION

Presiede: Daniela Tiscornia, ITTIG-CNR

10.00    Karen CoyleLinked data: an evolution

10.30   Aldo Gangemi, ISTC-CNR, Semantic technologies and linked data for the Italian PA: the case of data.cnr.it.

11.00   Giovanni TummarelloDigital Enterprise Research Institute (National University of Ireland, Galway) and Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), La frontiera tecnologica del web of data: tecnologie, adozione e prospettive 2012

11.30   Tom Baker, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), Designing data for the open world of the web

12.00   Paola Mazzucchi, mEDRA, Linked data: technology is here, but is it all we need?

12.30 Federico Morando, Politecnico di Torino – Nexa Center, Legal interoperability: making open government data compatible with businesses and communities

 

13:00 – 14:30 Lunch

 

SECTION 2: PUBLISHING VALUE VOCABULARIES AS LINKED DATA

Presiede: Mauro Guerrini, Università di Firenze

14.30 Alan Danskin, The British Library, Linked and open data: RDA and bibliographic control

15.00 Kevin Ford, The Library of Congress, LC Classification as linked data

15.30 Joan S. Mitchell, Michael Panzer, OCLC, Dewey linked data: making connections with old friends and new acquaintances

16.00 Marie-Veronique Leroi, Ministère de la culture et de la communication, France, Linked Heritage: a collaborative terminology management platform for a network of multilingual thesauri and controlled vocabularies

16.30 Giovanni Bergamin, Anna Lucarelli, Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze, The Nuovo soggettario as a service for the linked data world

17.00 Tommaso Agnoloni, Ginevra Peruginelli, Maria Teresa Sagri e Daniela Tiscornia, ITTIG-CNR, Annotation schema for legal doctrine: a case study on DoGi database

17.30 Discussion

 

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

 

SECTION 3: TOWARDS A WEB OF DATA: STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS

8:30-9:00: Welcome coffee

Presiede: Rossella Caffo, ICCU

9.00 Pat Riva, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec and IFLA FRBR Review Group, FRBR Review Group initiatives and the world of linked data

9.30 Elena Escolano Rodrìguez, Ministerio de Defensa, Spain, ISBD adaptation to semantic web of bibliographic data in linked data

10.00 Michael Hopwood, EDItEUR, Patrizia Martini, ICCU, Commercial and cultural sectors: potential for linked data collaboration?

10.30 Axel Kaschte, Ex Libris, Linked open data on its way into next generation library management and discovery solutions

11.00 Tiziana Possemato, Atcult, Linked data: re-thinking knowledge. How software producers can accompany this revolution

11.30 Gordon McKenna, Collection Trusts, Linked heritage experience in linking heritage information

12:00 Jan Brase, German National Library of Science and Technology, The DOI, DataCite and linked data

12:30 Maurizio Lunghi, Fondazione Rinascimento Digitale, Trust and persistence for internet resorcina

 

13:00 – 14:30 Lunch

 

SECTION 4: THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LIBRARY EXPERIENCES

Presiede: Maria Letizia Sebastiani, Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze

14.30 Roberto Moriondo, Regione Piemonte, Open data for open PA: the Piedmont case

15:00 Gabriele MessmerBayerische StaatsbibliothekLinking library metadata to the web. The German experiences

15.30 Romain Wenz, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Linked open data for new library services: the example of data.bnf.fr

16.00 Martin Malmsten, National Library of Sweden, The disintegration and distribution of the record – cataloguing in the open

16:30 Paola Manoni, Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, Metadata framework and application profiles in the global structure of catalogs and digitization projects of the Vatican Library

17.00 Romano Nanni, Biblioteca Leonardiana di Vinci (Firenze), e-Leo, digital archive for the history of Renaissance technics and science manuscripts.

17:30 Discussion and Conclusion

Stampa PDF

Copyright 2012 – Seminar “Global Interoperability and Linked Data in Libraries”

pagina creata il 21/02/2012, ultima modifica 14/03/2012

 

Modulo di registrazione

Modulo di registrazione

Please, fill in this form to register in the Seminar “Global interoperability and linked data in libraries” (Florence, 18-19 June 2012).

Si prega di compilare questo modulo per la registrazione online al seminario “Interoperabilità globale e linked data nelle biblioteche” (Firenze, 18-19 giugno 2012).

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Seminar ‘Global interoperability and linked data in libraries’
Surname and name / Cognome e nome
Institution and country / Istituzione e nazione
E-mail
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Seminario promosso da: 

Seminario promosso da:
Università degli studi di Firenze, Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane (ICCU), Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze (BNCF), Casalini Libri, Conferenza dei rettori delle università italiane (CRUI), Associazione italiana biblioteche (AIB), Istituto di teoria e tecniche dell’informazione giuridica del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (ITTIG-CNR), Rinascimento digitale

Gli ultimi anni hanno registrato un aumento considerevole di risorse informative presenti sul web pubblicate seguendo i principi dei linked data per la interconnessione di dati strutturati. Le best practices relative ai linked data sono pronte per essere adottate da un considerevole numero di fornitori, con l’obiettivo di creare uno spazio globale di dati: il web dei dati. Sulla base di questo fenomeno, il Seminario di Firenze si occuperà del tema dell’interoperabilità e dell’apertura dei dati nel mondo delle biblioteche, analizzando gli standard, le esperienze e le norme di buona pratica per l’adozione di tecnologie del web semantico in questo settore.

Tale paradigma, orientato all’arricchimento dei dati e all’interconnessione, offre soluzioni a molti problemi attuali delle biblioteche, tra i quali la ricerca avanzata sul web, il controllo d’autorità, la classificazione, la portabilità dei dati e la disambiguazione. In questo contesto l’obiettivo del Seminario è evidenziare i vantaggi che il collegamento fra i dati offre alle biblioteche, fornendo suggerimenti sulle modalità operative con cui esse possono partecipare allo sviluppo del web semantico.

La partecipazione di operatori di diversa provenienza coinvolti nella comunicazione dei dati sul web è in grado di assicurare nuove opportunità di mercato, rinnovati modelli di pubblicazione e diffusione dell’informazione insieme a uno scambio prezioso fra diverse competenze professionali.

Argomenti:

§  Web dei dati

§  Linked data

§  Dati bibliografici aperti

§  Gestione e distribuzione  dei dati bibliografici

§  Scambio di dati aperti

§  Tecnologie per il web semantico

§  Condivisione della conoscenza e connessione dei dati

§  Sviluppo di standard tecnici aperti

§  Buone pratiche per la pubblicazione e la connessione di dati strutturati sul web

§  Archivi aperti

§  Accesso aperto

§  Modelli concettuali

§  Sistemi di organizzazione della conoscenza (Knowledge Organisation Systems – KOS)

§  Riutilizzo dei dati bibliografici

§  Schema di metadati condivisi

§  Open Library data

Coordinamento

§  Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

Segreteria scientifica

§  Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

Comitato organizzativo

§  Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

§  Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

§  Rossella Caffo (ICCU)

§  Giulia Maraviglia (Università di Firenze)

§  Antonella Marinaro (Università di Firenze)

§  Sandra Torre (Università di Firenze)

Comitato scientifico

§  Giovanni Bergamin (BNCF)

§  Rossella Caffo (ICCU)

§  Michele Casalini (Casalini Libri)

§  Roberto Delle Donne (Università di Napoli e CRUI-Commissione OA)

§  Sandra Di Majo (AIB)

§  Elena Escolano Rodríguez (Ministerio de Defensa)

§  Roberto Guarasci (Università della Calabria)

§  Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

§  Claudio Leombroni (Provincia di Ravenna)

§  Anna Lucarelli (BNCF)

§  Giulia Maraviglia (Università di Firenze)

§  Stefano Parise (AIB)

§  Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

§  Tiziana Possemato (Atcult)

§  Barbara Tillett (The Library of Congress)

 

Copyright 2012 – Seminar “Global Interoperability and Linked Data in Libraries”

pagina creata il 2012-02-24, ultima modifica 2012-03-14

 

Seminar promoted by: 

Seminar promoted by:
Università degli studi di Firenze, Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane (ICCU), Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze (BNCF), Casalini Libri, Comune di Firenze, Conferenza dei rettori delle università italiane (CRUI), Associazione italiana biblioteche (AIB), Istituto di teoria e tecniche dell’informazione giuridica del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (ITTIG-CNR), Fondazione Rinascimento digitale

 

In the past few years, the amount of data published on the Web based on the Linked Data principles for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web has increased dramatically. Linked data best practices are now ready to be followed by a relevant number of data providers, leading to the creation of a global data space: the Web of Data. In such a context the Florence Seminar intends to focus on interoperability and open linked data in libraries, analysing standards, experiences and best practices for adopting semantic web technologies in this area.

Such paradigm of data enrichment and interconnection offers solutions to many of the actual library issues, like enhanced web searching, authority control, classification, data portability and disambiguation. In this context the Seminar’s purpose is to outline the benefits of linked data for libraries, while offering suggestions on practical ways in which libraries can participate in the development of the semantic web. The participation of different stakeholders, reflecting the actual trend in enhanced exchange of data, should ensure new market opportunities, the development of publishing and dissemination models, together with a fruitful exchange of professional experiences.

The seminar is bilingual. Presentations are given in English by foreign speakers (but some of them will speak in Italian) and in Italian by Italian speakers.

Topics

§  Web of data

§  Linked bibliographic data

§  Management of data and distribution in libraries

§  Open data exchange

§  Semantic web techniques and technologies

§  Knowldge sharing and connection of data

§  Development of open technical standards

§  Best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the web.

§  Open archives

§  Open access

§  Conceptual models

§  Knowledge Organisation Systems (KOS)

§  Consuming and using library data

§  Standard vocabularies

§  Open library data

Coordination

§  Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

Scientific Secretariat

§  Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

Organising Committee

§  Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

§  Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

§  Rossella Caffo (ICCU)

§  Giulia Maraviglia (Università di Firenze)

§  Antonella Marinaro (Università di Firenze)

§  Sandra Torre (Università di Firenze)

Scientific Committee

§  Giovanni Bergamin (BNCF)

§  Rossella Caffo (ICCU)

§  Michele Casalini (Casalini Libri)

§  Gianfranco Crupi (Sapienza Università di Roma)

§  Roberto Delle Donne (Università di Napoli e CRUI-Commissione OA)

§  Sandra Di Majo (AIB)

§  Elena Escolano Rodríguez (ex ISBD Chair)

§  Roberto Guarasci (Università della Calabria)

§  Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

§  Claudio Leombroni (Provincia di Ravenna)

§  Anna Lucarelli (BNCF)

§  Giulia Maraviglia (Università di Firenze)

§  Stefano Parise (AIB)

§  Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

§  Tiziana Possemato (Atcult)

§  Barbara Tillett (The Library of Congress)

Copyright 2012 – Seminar “Global Interoperability and Linked Data in Libraries”

Page created 24/02/2012, last change 10/06/2013

 

Seminario promosso da: 

Seminario promosso da:
Università degli studi di Firenze, Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane (ICCU), Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze (BNCF), Casalini Libri, Comune di Firenze, Conferenza dei rettori delle università italiane (CRUI), Associazione italiana biblioteche (AIB), Istituto di teoria e tecniche dell’informazione giuridica del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (ITTIG-CNR), Fondazione Rinascimento digitale

COMUNICATO STAMPA (pdf, 38 kb)

Gli ultimi anni hanno registrato un aumento considerevole di risorse informative presenti sul web pubblicate seguendo i principi dei linked data per la interconnessione di dati strutturati. Le best practices relative ai linked data sono pronte per essere adottate da un considerevole numero di fornitori, con l’obiettivo di creare uno spazio globale di dati: il web dei dati. Sulla base di questo fenomeno, il Seminario di Firenze si occuperà del tema dell’interoperabilità e dell’apertura dei dati nel mondo delle biblioteche, analizzando gli standard, le esperienze e le norme di buona pratica per l’adozione di tecnologie del web semantico in questo settore.

Tale paradigma, orientato all’arricchimento dei dati e all’interconnessione, offre soluzioni a molti problemi attuali delle biblioteche, tra i quali la ricerca avanzata sul web, il controllo d’autorità, la classificazione, la portabilità dei dati e la disambiguazione. In questo contesto l’obiettivo del Seminario è evidenziare i vantaggi che il collegamento fra i dati offre alle biblioteche, fornendo suggerimenti sulle modalità operative con cui esse possono partecipare allo sviluppo del web semantico.

La partecipazione di operatori di diversa provenienza coinvolti nella comunicazione dei dati sul web è in grado di assicurare nuove opportunità di mercato, rinnovati modelli di pubblicazione e diffusione dell’informazione insieme a uno scambio prezioso fra diverse competenze professionali.

Il seminario è bilingue. Le relazioni saranno presentate in inglese dai relatori stranieri (ma alcuni parleranno in italiano) e in italiano dai relatori italiani.

S’informa che le iscrizioni al Seminario sono state chiuse, essendo stato raggiunto il numero massimo degli iscritti.
Le relazioni finora giunte sono disponibili in preprint sul fascicolo provvisorio di JLIS.it

Argomenti:

Web dei dati

Linked data

Dati bibliografici aperti

Gestione e distribuzione  dei dati bibliografici

Scambio di dati aperti

Tecnologie per il web semantico

Condivisione della conoscenza e connessione dei dati

Sviluppo di standard tecnici aperti

Buone pratiche per la pubblicazione e la connessione di dati strutturati sul web

Archivi aperti

Accesso aperto

Modelli concettuali

Sistemi di organizzazione della conoscenza (Knowledge Organisation Systems – KOS)

Riutilizzo dei dati bibliografici

Schema di metadati condivisi

Open Library data

Coordinamento

Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

Segreteria scientifica

Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

Comitato organizzativo

Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

Rossella Caffo (ICCU)

Giulia Maraviglia (Università di Firenze)

Antonella Marinaro (Università di Firenze)

Sandra Torre (Università di Firenze)

Comitato scientifico

Giovanni Bergamin (BNCF)

Rossella Caffo (ICCU)

Michele Casalini (Casalini Libri)

Gianfranco Crupi (Sapienza Università di Roma)

Roberto Delle Donne (Università di Napoli e CRUI-Commissione OA)

Sandra Di Majo (AIB)

Elena Escolano Rodríguez (già IFLA ISBD Review Group)

Roberto Guarasci (Università della Calabria)

Mauro Guerrini (Università di Firenze)

Claudio Leombroni (Provincia di Ravenna)

Anna Lucarelli (BNCF)

Giulia Maraviglia (Università di Firenze)

Stefano Parise (AIB)

Ginevra Peruginelli (ITTIG)

Tiziana Possemato (Atcult)

Barbara Tillett (The Library of Congress)

 

Copyright 2012 – Seminar “Global Interoperability and Linked Data in Libraries”

pagina creata il 24/02/2012, ultima modifica 10/06/2013

 

Terminology

Terminology

[Source:  D3.1 Best practice report – Terminology (PDF3451 kb)]

The main outcome of the Athena WP4 activity consisted in elaborating recommendations addressed to the European Museums. We give here a short reminder of these recommendations that we have updated thanks to the larger scope of the Linked Heritage project. These reviewed recommendations are of high importance for the finalisation of the technical specifications of the WP3 Terminology
Management Platform.

The conclusion made consequently to the analysis of the survey results make it clear that monolingual in-house terminology resources are a reality that we can’t ignore at European level.

Thus these recommendations take into account this reality and give guidelines to institutions so they can keep their in-house terminologies adapted to their needs and means and however make it compliant with the requirements of the Semantic Web.

These recommendations have been published as a booklet “Your terminology as a part of the Semantic Web: recommendations for design and management” within the Linked Heritage project.

You can find a detailed presentation of these recommendations with examples and tools in this booklet which is both available in printer and digital form.

We structured the recommendations according to the main stages corresponding to the “lifetime” of a
terminology resource. The following schema presents you these main stages:

CONCEIVE YOUR TERMINOLOGY

The first one “Conceive your terminology” gives the main considerations and requirements to keep in
mind to create in the best way a terminology resource, ie as recommended a thesaurus. Here are the
tasks inherent to this first step:

INSERT IMAGE

INSERT IMAGE

A1 : Define your domains

This step is important to define the overall strategy of the terminology. If the domain of a terminology is too large it won’t be efficient for the descriptions of collections. On the contrary if a terminology is too specialised and focused on one domain, another terminology might be useful because this one is too limited because too specific. The definition of the domains covered by your cataloguing and indexing process is then important to create the general structure and hierarchy of the terminology.

A2 : Identify your user’s expectations

The target of the terminology is important as well. Indeed a terminology aiming at professionals only will be much more accurate than a one aiming at the general public. It is therefore important to define at the conception step if the terminology will be used only for cataloguing and indexing used by professionals or if the general public will also use the terminology to access the collections of the institutions. This could be also important regarding the choice of the license for the terminology.

A3 : Define your connection with the datamodel

Institutions use terminology for describing a collection or an object. This description is generally ruled by a datamodel. Some fields of this datamodel require terms from a controlled vocabulary. At the conception step it is important to define which fields of the datamodel will use the terminology in order to settle the domains and terms of the terminology.

A4 : Choose the terms for the semantic description of your digital resources

This task is consequent to the previous ones. Indeed the choice of the terms depends on the
domain(s) covered by the terminology, the users that will be using the terminology and the fields from
the datamodel that require a controlled vocabulary. This task is crucial both for indexing process and
retrieval of information and but not definitive as a terminology almost like languages needs evolution
through the time.

A5: Organise your terms into a thesaurus structure

As the thesaurus is the kind of terminology that we recommend, a logical recommendation is to organise terms and domains within a thesaurus structure. The more a term is connected to another one the more your terminology will be exploitable by human users and machines as well. Thesaurus offer both hierarchical and associative relationships. Exploiting in the best way these features can improve the efficiency of the terminology.

A6: Find equivalent terms in other languages

Very few terminologies described in the survey results are multilingual. Some countries dealing with several official languages have to provide multilingual content, then multilingual terminologies as well.

One best practice would be to enrich a terminology with equivalent terms in other languages even if it is not something mandatory according to the policy of the country. Reference terminologies and other terminologies corresponding to the domains and available in the terminology registry could be used to
proceed with this multilingual enrichment.

A7: Implement your thesaurus

The final task for the conception stage is the technical implementation of the thesaurus. Indeed the technical format (Spreadheet, XML, database, …) has to be defined here in order to make the thesaurus technically available. Several norms exist in order to cover the whole process of conception of a terminology but the latest one ISO 25964-1 that we already mentioned is the most adapted as it takes into account the technological reality of the institutions. After this serialization process, the terminology can be integrated into the collections/objects’ management system.

B : MAKE IT INTEROPERABLE

The second stage consists in making a terminology interoperable. This consists mainly in SKOSifying,
e.g. converting into SKOS the thesaurus that was technically implemented in the previous stage.

B1: Evaluate how far SKOS is compliant with your terminology features

The first task is to define is SKOS is the most convenient format for the kind of terminology you may have. Indeed an authority file with author names may need a more appropriate format such as FOAF. So there must be an evaluation of the benefits using SKOS without losing any information or implying wrong information or inferences because of the SKOS datamodel.

B2: Roughly SKOSify your terminology

Here is the SKOSification task. We suggest to roughly SKOSify as some tools exist and help to proceed automatically with the SKOSification of a thesaurus. By rough SKOSification we mean an automatic process for converting a terminology into SKOS. A detailed SKOSification would be the one validated by the human expert. The Terminology Management Platform (TMP) of Linked Heritage will have a dedicated module for the SKOSification so this step could be done with the least cost and mean possible.

B3: Define with precision the labels expressing concepts

This task is directly correlated with the task A4 : Choose your terms. Indeed the terms of the thesaurus will be the labels expressing the concepts. So this task must be done with attention since the SKOS datamodel has some requirements regarding the labels and their languages. You can refer to the second deliverable of the Athena project, ‘D4.2 Guidelines for mapping into SKOS, dealing with translations’ to get more detailed information on SKOS and precise guidelines helping for SKOSification.

B4: Identify your concepts and validate the structure

This task results from the transition from a descriptor/term based resource to a concept-based kind of resource. Indeed with the thesaurus terms were descriptors, keywords used for description but according to the SKOS model, these terms and descriptors become labels expressing concepts. This little difference of perception may imply some modification in your modeling. This is why the concepts of a terminology have to be identified in order to consolidate the organisation of the concepts of the terminology.

The question of the persistent identifiers in order to give a unique identifier to each concept of a terminology has been raised several times in the framework of the Thematic Working Group. This unique identifier is required by the principles of the Semantic Web and Linked Data. Therefore we strongly recommend to use a persistent identifier system for the identification of concepts within a terminology.

You can refer to the booklet that was published in the framework of the Athena WP3 (Workpackage dedicated to the standards) on ‘Persistent identifiers: recommendations’.

B5: Ensure the documentation of concepts

As we already mentioned it, a terminology will evolve through time as the language evolves as well. This is why it is important to keep track of the details and information that might be useful for an obsolete label or to remove the ambiguity between two identical labels expressing two different concepts. SKOS offers a large choice of notes in order to ensure the documentation of the concepts.

Elements inherent to the language issue (orthography, grammar, …) can be recorded here.

B6: Map your concepts

This task is correlated with the A5 task (A5: Organise your terms into a thesaurus structure). Indeed for that task, the general structure and organization of terms within the thesaurus have been defined. Then the mapping of concepts is a refinement stage of this structure thanks to the features of SKOS.

This mapping can be done through the possible hierarchical (skos:broader, skos:narrower) or
associative (skos:related) relationships.

B7: Map your (multilingual) terms

As the mapping of the concepts has been done in the framework of the previous task, the mapping of terms can be done. It mainly consists in arranging the labels. This task is particularly important for the multilingualism as the mapping of terms can help enriching the terminology with multilingual labels.

This task is correlated with the A6: find equivalent terms in other languages. It is about transposing these equivalencies in the SKOS structure of the terminology respecting its datamodel and keeping all the relevant information of your thesaurus.

B8: Validate your SKOSification
The benchmark done in the framework of the Athena WP4 showed that several tools exist for the validation of the final SKOS output of the terminology. The simplest one is Pool Party30 which can proceed with a syntax validation online from an RDF file uploaded from a local repository. The upcoming SKOSification module of the TMP will perform this validation of the SKOS consistency on the go with the SKOSification process.

C : LINK IT TO A NETWORK

This last stage is the one which allows an institution to publish a terminology and make it available to the Web. As the previous stage ensured the interoperability and the SKOSification of the terminology, this one is fully compliant with the principles of the Semantic Web and the Linked data. This final stage gives the final recommendations to make the terminology part of the Semantic Web by linking it to existing networks of terminologies.

C1: Definition of metadata on your terminology

This task intends to give the basic information about the terminology so it can be searched and retrieved easily within a terminology registry. Indeed the first step to link a terminology to a network of terminologies is to provide a description of it especially the date of creation, the authors, the domains covered by the terminology. Usually the fields of the Dublin Core are relevant and complete enough to provide quality metadata of the terminology. The terminology registry of the TMP will also provide a metadata form so institutions when uploading their terminology can feed the terminology registry with the terminology and its metadata.

C2: Identification of resources for mapping

This task consists in identifying all the terminology resources that could be mapped with the terminology just created. It supposes to browse terminology registries and find resources that cover the same domains for enriching your own terminology with missing concepts or ensuring multilingualism with equivalent terms in other languages. Another use case can also be the integration of a related domain in your terminology if it is in the same language than your terminology. This task is connected to the A1: Define your domains and A2: Define your users’ expectations since other terminology resources can help achieving these tasks.

C3: Mapping with other resources

This task has a direct reference to the B3: Define with precision the labels expressing your concepts and B6: map your concepts. Indeed this task is about finding manually or automatically all the concepts that could be relevant to be integrated or just mapped with because these are concepts from the same domain, or concepts from a domain that is not the same but related or because the concepts are expressed in several languages and the terminology can then be enriched and become multilingual. In this perspective, you can notice that the use of a unique and persistent identifier is crucial for the mapping of two different terminology resources.

C4: Validation of the interoperability

This validation step as the B8: Validate your SKOSification is the final task to get a terminology interoperable and part of a network of terminologies. The only way to check and validate the interoperability is its integration within a search engine and making queries and then test all the semantic inferences that could done through the semantic mapping done thanks to the SKOSification
and the mapping. The Terminology Management Platform intends to provide all the necessary features for these stages of the terminology especially for ensuring the interoperability and providing the needed mapping features. As a search and visualization interface will be developed the SKOSification and
interoperability would be easily validated within a same user interface.

Coordinator:
Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane

Viale Castro Pretorio 105
00185 Roma, Italia
tel. 39 06 49210427
fax 39 06 4959302
info[at]linkedheritage[dot]org

 

LINKED HERITAGE is solely responsible for the content of this site, which does not represent the opinion of the European Commission. This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 2.5 (by-nc-sa) License

Page created 2013-12-18, last change 2013-12-19

 

Registration Form – LH Workshop nazionale, Padova, 6 marzo 2013

Registration Form – LH Workshop nazionale, Padova, 6 marzo 2013

Compila questo modulo online per registrarti al Workshop nazionale di Linked Heritage “Il patrimonio culturale digitale verso Europeana e CulturaItalia: aspetti tecnici e metodologia” che si terrà a Padova il 6 marzo 2013, presso l’Università degli Studi di Padova.

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Modulo di registrazione, Workshop Linked Heritage, Padova, 6 marzo 2013

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Coordinator:
Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane

Viale Castro Pretorio 105
00185 Roma, Italia
tel. 39 06 49210427
fax 39 06 4959302
info[at]linkedheritage[dot]org

 

Copyright 2011-2013 LINKED HERITAGE Project. LINKED HERITAGE is solely responsible for the content of this site, which does not represent the opinion of the European Commission. This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 2.5 (by-nc-sa) License

Page created 2013-01-23, last change 2013-02-01